[NB. The reader will probably find it easier to understand this page if he or she has already acquainted himself or herself with the contents of Chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 1 concerns the basic building-blocks used in Romano-British place-names and Chapter 2 explains how those building blocks were assembled by the Celts to form compound names.]
Giano to Alavna Colonea(s)
Roman place-names in southwest England
1 This is one of the most difficult regions of Britain for the student of Roman place-names. In the past the only name which could be identified with confidence was Isca at Exeter, but by using the building-blocks explained in chapter 1 and the information in Chapter 2 it is possible to identify most of Ravenna’s and Ptolemy’s place-names in that part of the country – not them all, but most of them. The first point to note is that Ravenna lists names lying almost, but not quite, on one single alignment stretching from Penzance to Ilchester. This particular list starts with Statio Deventiasteno (11) at Penzance, stops at Isca to list a few names not on an alignment out of Exeter, continues with Moriduno (23) at Hembury and proceeds to Omiretedertis (25) at Martock, which is used as a node, lists a few names on alignments out of Martock and then ends with Alavna Colonea(s) (32, 33) at Ilchester.
2 Deventiasteno appears to be a composite river-name (such names are explained in Home/Chapter 19, 11), i.e. a river-name comprising a river-element, in this case a river-prefix Devent, qualified by a place-name element, in this case asteno. The river-prefix comprises the river-letter t (changed to d) corresponding to the hill-letter l1, the river-letter b (changed to v) corresponding to the hill-letter s, and the river-letter t corresponding to the hill-letter l2. The place-name element asteno comprises the hill-letter s in the inversion-type element st, meaning ‘hill high’. There was probably earlier an l between the i and the a of Deventiasteno. Normally in such names the place-name element was the name of a place on or very close to the river concerned, so one can deduce that there was an Iron Age hillfort or settlement called Asteno/Lasteno on or very close to a stream which reaches the sea at Penzance. The Romans will simply have transferred the composite river-name to a fort/harbour which they built at Penzance. The development to the modern name seems quite clear: Deventiasteno → Ventiasteno → Benzasteno → Penzasteno → Penzance.
3 The next name in Ravenna’s list is Duriarno (12) which was presumably at Truro. The dur element is probably not the same as the duro used when naming new towns in southeast England. It is probably a compound river-element in the river letters t, changed to d, and r (as in Ravenna’s river Durolavi (262)), the river-element being qualified by the place-name arno including the hill-letter r.
4 Then comes Uxelis (13), where the place-name proper, uxel, has been reversed at some stage to give Lescu, and this has become the Lisk of modern Liskeard. Given that the x of uxel stands in for cs and that this old-style element means ‘steep hill’, one should look for traces of the Roman fort in the western part of the modern town, at the top of the steep escarpment on the east bank of the East Looe river (assuming that the Roman fort stood on the same site as Iron Age Uxelis).
5 The next name is Vertevia (14) at Tavistock. The river-name Tavy will be derived from the tail-end of the Roman place-name and the modern town-name will be a back formation from the river-name. It is possible, however, that Vertevia is actually a river-name of the kind where a river-element is used as a suffix to a land-name, the suffix here being evia (the v a modified river-letter b) and the land-name being vert, an inversion-type name meaning ‘slope of hill high’. On the other hand the river-element might be tevia, a compound in the river-letters t and b, and the land-name might only be ver meaning ‘slope of hill’.
6 The next but one name in Ravenna is Scadum Namorum (16) at Exeter, so the next name, Melamoni, will have been between Tavistock and Exeter. The i of Melamoni will belong to Scadum Namorum and Melamon will originally have been Lelamon, this place-name corresponding to the river-name Dart. Between Tavistock and Exeter are the West Dart and the East Dart rivers, so Lelamon will have been a Celtic settlement close to one of those rivers and the name will have been transferred by the Romans to a fort which they built in the vicinity. Note that the hill-letter m of Lelamon corresponds to the river-letter r in Dart. The l in the middle of Lelamon is the hill-letter l1 used in an inversion-type manner, and the corresponding river-letter t, changed to d, is also applied in an inversion-type manner, i.e. it is placed before the r in Dart. The initial L of Lelamon is the hill-letter l2 and the people who used this hill-letter normally placed their river-letter t at the end of an existing river name. The river-name thus became Dart.
7 The name Termonin appearing in Ravenna after Scadum Namorum has long caused difficulty, but it appears to be not a name, but a word indicating that the compiler of Ravenna has stopped listing the names on the main axis from Penzance to Ilchester and will now list some names on a different alignment, but not an alignment out of Exeter. It was simply convenient to list these names at this point before continuing to the northeast with Moriduno at Hembury. This sub-group of names comprises the names Mestevia (18) to Alovergium (22). No likely locations south of the Penzance-Ilchester axis present themselves, so presumably those places were all north of that line. Now, if one looks at a map one will note that Tiverton, South Molton, Barnstaple and Braunton, four of the largest towns in North Devon, lie substantially on a straight line. That is unlikely to be a coincidence. It is more likely that they stand on or close to the sites of early Roman forts and that the sites for the forts were chosen, and the forts built, before the road builders arrived in that part of the country.
7.1 Mestevia was probably that one of those four forts which was closest to Exeter. In other words, Mestevia appears to have been the name of the Roman fort at Tiverton, the tiv element of the modern name presumably being derived from the tail-end of the Roman name.
7.2 Milidunum (19) thus appears to have been a fort at or close to South Molton. The name is a compound in the hill-letters m, l and n, the dunum element indicating that the fort was built on the top of a hill. Milidunum was most probably the name of the hillfort on Whitechapel Moors, some 4 kilometres east of South Molton. The name will have been transferred by the Romans to a fort which they built at South Molton itself.
7.3 The next name, Apaunaris (20) presents a problem. It is not likely to have been at Barnstaple since Pilton/Barnstaple appears to be listed earlier as Vernilis (8)(discussed below). Perhaps Apaunaris was at Braunton, though it is not clear why the Romans should wish two forts so close together as Pilton and Braunton. It is likely, however, that Apaunaris was originally the name of the hill-fort a little north of Braunton and west of Knowle. That hill-fort stands on the slope, the side, of a high hill, so that Apaunaris will earlier have been Abavnaris. But the hill-letter is missing from the first element of the name. It may have been an r, thus yielding a name of the form Abravnaris or Abarvnaris where brav or barv is an old-style element meaning 'high hill slope'. The Abravn or Abarvn part of the name may possibly have become the Braun of modern Braunton.
7.4 Jumping over the next name to Alovergium (22), this appears to have been the name of a fort/harbour at Ilfracombe. The name appears to be a compound in the hill-letters l and r and the spelling may originally have been Alobergium, berg being a transitional element meaning ‘high hill steep’. The hill in question is presumably that which forms so prominent a feature of the local landscape, standing as it does on the seaward side of the small harbour, though there are higher hills on the landward side of the harbour. If the spelling of Alovergium is in fact correct, then the verg element indicates that the Roman fort was built on the side of a steep hill. The Ilfra part of the modern town-name is presumably derived from the Alover of Alovergium. But note that the name - in the Alobergium form - was probably that of the Celtic hill-fort now called Hillsborough, on high ground just east of Ilfracombe, and was simply transferred by the Romans to a fort/harbour which they built at Ilfracombe itself.
7.5 Masona (21) presents a major problem. The name appears to be a compound in the hill-letters m and s, though no identification suggests itself. It may have been another coastal fort, somewhere to the east of Ilfracombe, perhaps that at Martinhoe.
8 It is at this point, with the words “iterum iuxta suprascriptam civitatem Scadoniorum”, that Ravenna takes us back to Exeter and continues with the list of names on the main Penzance to Ilchester axis, the next place being Moriduno (23) at Hembury. If one draws a line on a map between Exeter and Ilchester one will note that that line passes straight through Ilminster and Martock and very close to Hembury Hill. Hembury is 15 Roman miles from Exeter and that is precisely the distance quoted in the AI Iter XV and in the Peutinger Table for the stretch between Moriduno (Ridumo in the Peutinger Table) and Isca at Exeter. Presumably the Romans built some post inside the hill fort at Hembury after they had evicted the inhabitants.
8.1 The forts at Ilminster and Ilchester were both called Alavna, this being a river-name transferred by the Romans to the forts, and so, in order to distinguish the two closely spaced-apart forts, the first was called Alavna Silva (24) and the second Alavna Colonea(s) (32,33).
8.2 It has long been believed that Ilchester was called Lindinis in the Roman period, but this is quite impossible. Lindinis is a compound in the hill-letters l and n, the nd referring to a location on top of a hill. Such a definition is wholly inappropriate for Ilchester. What this means is that the place listed after Alavna Silva, namely Omiretedertis (25) at Martock, is used as a node, and the names between Omiretedertis and Alavna Colonea(s) lie on alignments out of Martock. It seems quite clear that the first few names lie on an alignment to the north of Martock, Lindinis (26) then being the hill-fort at Dundon Hill. The dun of Dundon is presumably derived from the din of Lindinis, just as the dun of Dunning appears to be derived from the don of Lodone (213) and perhaps the den of Denton from the don of Stodo(n)ion (158).
8.3 If one extends to the north a line linking Martock and Dundon Hill one comes to Henton in Somerset, this place lying adjacent a steep, high hill, which is the meaning of the next name, Canza (27). Canza will originally have been Cantia and this is a name of the cant, cent, cunet, canat, cinat family, all of these elements referring to a location adjacent a steep, high hill. Presumably the hen of Henton is derived from the can of Canza.
8.4 Ravenna appears to continue north on the same alignment, for the next name, Dolocindo (28), appears quite clearly to refer to the hill-fort now known as Westbury Camp, to the northwest of Westbury-sub-Mendip. The name Dolocindo is entirely appropriate for Westbury Camp since the dol element means ‘summit of hill’ and cindo is an old-style element meaning ‘steep hill summit’. The name was presumably transferred to a Roman fort built in the vicinity.
8.5 The next place, Clavinio (29) was further north on the same alignment, at Charterhouse, where there was a small Roman fort and town. The clav element appears to be a banna-type name but using the hill-letter l rather than n and the adjective c meaning ‘steep’ rather than b meaning ‘high’. Note that Clavinio will have been the name of the earthwork built on a steep hillside a little northwest of the Roman fort and town and was simply transferred by the Romans to their fort and new town.
8.6 The next two names in Ravenna are Morionio (30) and Bolvelaunio (31) at Wiveliscombe, the Roman fort at the latter place being a little to the east of the modern town. The name Bolvelaunio may be a combination of the land-name Bolv meaning ‘high hill slope’ and the river-name Alavna, in which case the name as a whole is a river-name which was adopted by the Romans and applied to their fort. It seems more likely, however, that Bolvelaunio is a corruption of the Celtic name of the hill-fort just east of Wiveliscombe. This hill-fort stands at the top of a high, steep hill, so a name such as Bolbelagunio or Borbeladunio would be appropriate. The well-known b/v interchange and the omission of a letter, here g, would account for the change Bolbelagunio → Bolvelaunio. If the Celtic name had been Borbeladunio then the r/l interchange would also be involved.
8.7 Morionio thus appears to have been between Martock and Wiveliscombe. It was most probably the hill-fort known as Norton Camp at Norton Fitzwarren, just west of Taunton. The name as it appears in Ravenna may refer to a Roman post built inside the hill-fort once the inhabitants had been moved out, or to a Roman fort built somewhere in the vicinity, the name then simply being transferred by the Romans from the hill-fort to their own fort.
8.8 After Bolvelaunio at Wiveliscombe Ravenna comes back to the node at Martock and then lists Alavna Colonea(s), thus completing the list of names on the Penzance to Ilchester axis. The s of Coloneas belongs to the next-following name in Ravenna, Aranus (34), and Colonea should presumably be Colonia, this probably indicating that Ilchester was occupied by retired soldiers of the Legio II Augusta.
8.9 A word about Omiretedertis – the original spelling must have been Omirededertis, this comprising the old-style compound omired in the hill-letters m and r, the red element indicating that the place concerned was on top of a hill. Dertis is an inversion-type element meaning ‘summit of hill high’, so Omirededertis is a name like Ptolemy's Bannatia, where the residents simply added a new-fangled inversion-type name-element on to the end of the old name of the place. Omirededertis will of course have been the name of the hill-fort on Ham Hill, so either the Romans built a post inside the hill-fort, after evicting the occupants, or they transferred the name of the hill-fort to a fort which they built at the foot of the hill, at or close to Martock.
9 Now we can go back to consider one of the most difficult groups of names in the Ravenna Cosmography, namely Giano (1) to Devionisso (10). The places concerned will have been in the region bounded to the north by the alignment Tiverton to Braunton and to the south by the alignment Penzance to Exeter. The names of three Roman forts can be identified without too much difficulty. Firstly, the four names Elconio (3), Nemeto (4), Statio (4) and Tamaris (5) appear to belong together as the name of a Roman fort at Launceston, though no such fort has yet been discovered so far as the present writer is aware. Statio Tamaris may indicate that the fort was the tax-gathering centre for the Tamar basin. Elconio and Nemeto belong together as one name, probably originally Elconionemedo (since otherwise the elements of the name would be in the wrong order) and this name has nothing to do with any hypothetical Celtic word nemet/nemed thought to mean ‘sacred grove’. Furthermore the l is not a misreading of the Latin abbreviation Fl as argued by Rivet and Smith - it is in this name simply the hill-letter l. The hill-letter l is used in an inversion-type manner, qualified by the earlier name Conionemedo. The name will have been Conion at one time, where the old-style element con means ‘steep hill’, and then the people who coined place-names in the hill-letter m arrived on the scene and added their element med, meaning ‘hill summit’, to the end of the previous name. The name Conionemedo thus refers to a location on the summit of a steep hill, perhaps the hill where Launceston Castle now stands. But since Conionemedo is an old-style Celtic compound in the hill-letters n1 and m the name will have been coined long before any Roman set foot in Britain. The place concerned will thus have been a Celtic fort or settlement on the top of a steep hill. The full name Elconionemedo might also refer to that hill-fort but since Elconionemedo means 'hill called (or of) Conionemedo' the full name might possibly refer to a new settlement (replacing the hill-top settlement) on the low ground at the foot of the hill. The Roman fort, which was presumably also built on the low ground, most probably near the river Tamar so as to control a river-crossing, will have taken its name from the hill-fort, or from that new settlement if there was one. Note that Conionemedo is a straightforward old-style place-name in the hill-letters n and m, the corresponding river-letters being m (for major rivers) and r, both of which are present in the river-name Tamaris. The initial T of Tamaris is the river-letter t corresponding to the inversion-type hill-letter l of Elconionemedo. The l of Elconionemedo is thus the hill-letter l1 and so was added to the name by people who appear to have come to Britain before 150BC, though they will not have used their hill-letter in an inversion-type manner at that early period. The changeover from old-style to inversion-type names appears to have occurred during the second half of the 2nd century BC.
9.1 The second name which can be identified is Devionisso (10). There are about ten place-names in Ravenna having an ending of the essa-type, and the first part of the name, before the ending, may be a land-name including the hill-letter s or a river-name including the corresponding river-letter b. In Devionisso the first part of the name is the river-name devion comprising the river-letters t, changed to d, and b, changed to v. The dev in Devionisso has changed to Taw, and the Roman fort called Devionisso was surely that at North Tawton, the fort on raised ground overlooking the Taw at a point just south of the old railway line. There is a fairly steep drop down to the river at that point, so the isso ending appears appropriate (the ending appears always to be applied to places at the top of a steep slope and overlooking a river).
9.2 The third name which can be identified is Arduaravenatone (9). This is a river-name transferred by the Romans to the fort which they built at Okehampton. In other words Arduaravenatone was the then name of the river now called the Okement. It is a river-name of the kind comprising a river-suffix, in this case venatone, attached to a place-name, in this case Arduara, where Ard is an old-style element meaning ‘hill-summit’. But because the name includes an old-style element in the hill-letter r, and also the hill-summit letter d, we are really looking for a Celtic hill-fort/settlement on top of a hill adjacent the river. The only such hill-fort/settlement on the OS maps, so far as the writer can see, is that on Castle Hill, just west of Woolleigh Barton, though the river is today called the Torridge at that point. The hill has very steep sides to the north and south of the hill-fort/settlement, so the Celtic name was probably Carduara, where card means ‘steep hill summit’. This means that the Celtic river-name Arduaravenatone/Carduaravenatone was applied to the river Okement and that part of the modern Torridge from the confluence with the Okement down to Bideford, the upper reaches of the modern Torridge thus having had some other Celtic name. The above argument is borne out by the modern name Bideford. The Bide part of this name is just a modified version of venatone. Ignoring the one ending, if one carries out three common changes, namely change v to b and t to d, and delete intervocalic n, one obtains Bead, which is very close to the Bede seen in Bedeford in the Domesday Book. We may deduce from the above that the English settlement called Bedeford was founded, and named, before the river-name changed to Torridge.
9.3 The above identification of Elconionemedo Statio Tamaris, Arduaravenatone and Devionisso gives us a clue as to the location of the remaining Roman forts in that region, for the order of names in Ravenna is Elconionemedo Statio Tamaris, (Purocoronavis, Pilais, Vernilis), Arduaravenatone, Devionisso. Clearly Elconionemedo Statio Tamaris at Launceston is used as a node, for Arduaravenatone at Okehampton and Devionisso at North Tawton lie on one alignment out of Launceston. We can therefore deduce that Purocoronavis, Pilais and Vernilis lay on another alignment or alignments out of Launceston. Vernilis is the easiest of the three to identify – it will have been a Roman fort at Pilton/Barnstaple. The Celtic name will have been Bernilis and this will have been the name of the Celtic hill-fort now known as Roborough Castle (at SS 569 352), just north of Barnstaple. If one changes the initial B of Bernil to P (a fairly common change in Romano-British names) and shortens the name by deleting some internal letters (another fairly common change) one obtains Pil, and this may account for the Pil of Pilton. The Roman fort, as yet undiscovered, may have been on the hill at Pilton, but is just as likely to have been on lower ground near the river Taw, presumably to guard a harbour or control a river-crossing. The Roman fort will of course simply have taken its name from the Celtic hill-fort.
9.4 Pilais is slightly more difficult, though we know it was generally to the south of Pilton/Barnstaple. The name appears to have been that of the Celtic hill-fort now known as Berry Castle at SS 495 223, just southwest of Huntshaw. The hillfort stands on the slope of a high hill, so the Celtic name may have been Vilatis, where vilat is an inversion-type element meaning ‘slope of hill high’. But the hill is fairly steep, especially south of the hill-fort, so the Celtic name may equally well have been Vilacis, where vilac is an inversion-type element meaning ‘slope of hill steep’. The name will then have been transferred by the Romans to a fort which they built somewhere in the vicinity, the initial V changing to B and then B changing to P, and intervocalic t or c being dropped (these changes being fairly common in Romano-British names) to leave Pilais. But where was Roman Pilais? Margary road 493 goes from Crediton over to Burrington Moor and appears to proceed in the direction of Bideford. It thus seems most likely that the Celtic name of Berry Castle hill-fort was simply transferred by the Romans to a fort which they built at Bideford, presumably to guard a harbour or control a river-crossing.
9.5 Going back now to Purocoronavis (6), this would appear to have been north of Launceston and south of Bideford. The name appears to have been that of a fort at Bude, or perhaps a little upriver, somewhere around Helebridge. Purocoronavis will originally have been Burocoronavis, this being a river-name of the kind having a river-element, here Bur, a compound in the river-letters b and r, attached as a prefix to a land-name, here Coronavis, this being apparently a compound in the hill-letters r and n, where the old-style element Cor means ‘steep hill’. Coronavis will have been the name of a Celtic hillfort or settlement adjacent a steep slope close the river which reaches the sea at Bude, this river now being known as the Neet or the Strat. There are in fact two Celtic settlements close to that river. The first is at Stamford Hill, just north of Stratton, and the second is further northeast next to Hunthill Wood. In the case of both settlements the drop down to the river is steep, so either settlement could have been Coronavis. But if the n of Coronavis was originally a v, then the old-style element Corov meaning ‘steep hill slope’ would be appropriate for the settlement near Hunthill Wood but apparently not for that at Stamford Hill. Note that if l –people later settled in that area they might have added their river-letter t to the end of the existing river-element, the latter then becoming Burit. This form, with omission of intervocalic r and the change of t to d may be the origin of the modern name Bude. And if the initial b of Burit changed to v and then the latter changed to n then Nurit, with omission of intervocalic r, might be the origin of the modern river-name Neet. But note that there is some inconsistency in maps as to which river in that region is actually called Neet. If the river flowing up the western side of the steep hill crowned by the Ashbury Camp hillfort (NGR: SX 228 975: just west of Week St Mary) is actually the Neet then that hillfort will have been Coronavis and the river the Burocoronavis.
9.6 That leaves only Giano (1) and Eltabo (2). These names may refer to two different places but it seems more likely that they belong together as the name of the Roman fort at Nanstallon, just west of Bodmin. The l of Eltabo is not a misreading of the Latin abbreviation Fl for flumen, meaning ‘river’, as argued by Rivet and Smith – it is simply the river-letter l applied to minor rivers by those who coined place-names in the hill-letter n. Eltabo is a compound river-name in the river-letters l and t (and b if the b is indeed the river-letter b and not just a name-ending) corresponding to the hill-letters n and l (and s). The hill letters n, l and s are all present in the modern name Nanstallon, though this might just be a coincidence. The name Giano Eltabo will have been transferred to the Roman fort from the Celtic hill-fort just upstream from Nanstallon in Dunmere Wood. This hill-fort stands on a hillside, the drop down to the river being very steep, so the name Giano was probably originally Glavo, where Glav is an old-style element meaning ‘steep hill slope’. Eltabo will have been the then name of the river Camel and the Celts will have added Eltabo to Glavo just to distinguish this Glavo from another Glavo somewhere else, Glavo Eltabo then being a Celtic name rather like modern names of the form Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Newcastle-under-Lyme. Landini Tamese and Litinomago Devoni are other Celtic names of the same kind.
10 Ptolemy lists very few names in this region. For the Belgae he lists Iscalis and Aquae calidae. Aquae calidae is presumably a reference to Bath and Iscalis appears to have been a fort on the river Axe in Somerset, the name being transferred by the Romans to the river. Iscalis appears to be one of those names which were simply reversed at some stage (cf. Isca, the Devon Exe, reversed to give acsi and given a grammatical ending um to yield acsium – Isca is Ptolemy’s name for the Exe, Axium Ravenna’s), since reversal of this name gives a name like Lacsis. If then people who used the hill-letter n settled in that area they might have mistaken the letter l for the river-letter l which they applied to minor rivers, the proper name of the river then being for them acs, this of course surviving in the modern name Axe. For the Dumnoni Ptolemy lists Voliba, Uxella, Tamara and Isca. Isca was of course at Exeter and Tamara was presumably Ravenna’s Elconionemedo Statio Tamaris at Launceston. Uxella appears to have been a fort on the river Parrett, the Romans transferring this name to the river – hence Ptolemy’s Uxella estuary, though it was the Celtic river-name which survived in the modern river-name Parrett (the river-letters corresponding to the hill-letters s and l in Uxella are r and t, both of which are present in the name Parrett). Voliba presents a greater problem, but it might be just a shortened version of Ravenna’s river-name Bolvelaunio, originally Bolvelabnio (assuming this was a river-name - see paragraph 8.6 above). The development may have been Bolvelabnio → Bolabnio → Bolabio → Bolibao → Voliba. If this is correct then Ptolemy’s Voliba was at Wiveliscombe. However, Voliba may of course have been somewhere else. The name looks like a river name, one of the kind in which a river-element, here the river-letter b, is used as a suffix to a land-name, here vol. The inversion-type element vol means ‘slope of a hill’, though the element may originally have been bol, meaning ‘high hill’. For the Durotriges Ptolemy lists only Dunium. There has long been dispute as to the identification of this name, but since Lindinis appears to have become Dundon then Dunium could be an intermediate stage in that development. If this is correct then Ptolemy’s Dunium was the hill-fort on Dundon Hill, or possibly a Roman fort and civilian settlement at the foot of the hill, if the Romans obliged the Durotriges to leave their hill-fort.
11 That completes the list of place-names given by Ptolemy and Ravenna for the southwest of England, but there is another name that can be added. Ravenna gives the name Traxula for the Devon Axe. This is a river-name of the kind having a river-element - in this case a compound of the river-letters t and r – used as a prefix to a land-name. There must therefore have been a place called Axula close to the river Axe, the ax element referring to a place adjacent a steep slope, though this does not help to reduce the number of possible locations in that hilly part of the country. Axula must therefore remain unidentified. But it was of course a Celtic fort/settlement, so the two most likely candidates are the hill-forts known as Musbury Castle, southeast of the village of Musbury, and Hawkesdown Camp, just north of Axmouth. The name Axula would be appropriate for either hill-fort.
12 The map below shows the location of most of the places discussed in this chapter. Elconionemedo Statio Tamaris is given in the form discussed above. Otherwise the names and their numbering are as given by Richmond and Crawford. The identifications are as follows:
(1),2 (Giano) Eltabo Nanstallon
3,4,5 Elconionemedo Statio Tamaris Launceston
6 Purocoronavis Bude
7 Pilais Bideford
8 Vernilis Pilton/Barnstaple
9 Arduaravenatone Okehampton
10 Devionisso North Tawton
11 Statio Deventiasteno Penzance
12 Duriarno Truro
13 Uxelis Liskeard
14 Vertevia Tavistock
15 Melamoni close to the West Dart or East Dart river
16 Scadum Namorum Exeter
18 Mestevia Tiverton
19 Milidunum South Molton
20 Apaunaris Braunton
22 Alovergium Ilfracombe
23 Moriduno Hembury
24 Alavna Silva Ilminster
25 Omiretedertis Ham Hill (or Martock, at the foot of the hill)
26 Lindinis Dundon Hill
27 Canza Henton
28 Dolocindo Westbury Camp
29 Clavinio Charterhouse
31 Bolvelaunio Wiveliscombe
32,33 Alavna Colonea(s) Ilchester
Morionio (30) at Norton Camp, Norton Fitzwarren, is not shown on the map. It lies between Omiretedertis (25) and Bolvelaunio (31).
[This page was last modified on 02 April 2022]